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The Fantastic Four is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team debuted in The Fantastic Four 1 cover dated Nov. The four characters traditionally associated with the Fantastic Four, who gained superpowers after exposure to cosmic rays during a scientific mission to outer space, are: Mister Fantastic Reed Richards , a scientific genius and the leader of the group, who can stretch his body into incredible lengths and shapes; the Invisible Woman Susan “Sue” Storm , who eventually married Reed, who can render herself invisible and project powerful invisible force fields and blasts; the Human Torch Johnny Storm , Sue’s younger brother, who can generate flames, surround himself with them and fly; and the monstrous Thing Ben Grimm , their grumpy but benevolent friend, a former college football star, Reed’s college roommate and a good pilot, who possesses tremendous superhuman strength, durability and endurance due to his stone-like flesh.
Since the introduction, the Fantastic Four has been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional, yet loving, family. Breaking convention with other comic archetypes, the members squabbled, held grudges both deep and petty, and eschewed anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status. They are also well known for their recurring encounters with characters such as the villainous monarch Doctor Doom ; the planet-devouring Galactus ; the Kree Empire ‘s ruthless and tyrannical enforcer Ronan the Accuser ; the Negative Zone ‘s ruler Annihilus ; the sea-dwelling prince Namor ; the spacefaring Silver Surfer ; and the Skrull warrior Kl’rt.
The Fantastic Four have been adapted into other media , including four animated series and four live-action films. Apocryphal legend has it that in , longtime magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman was playing golf with either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of rival company DC Comics , then known as National Periodical Publications, and that the top executive bragged about DC’s success with the new superhero team the Justice League of America.
According to Lee, writing in , “Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [ sic ] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. Lee, who had served as editor-in-chief and art director of Marvel Comics and its predecessor companies, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics , for two decades, found that the medium had become creatively restrictive.
Determined “to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books”, [note 3] Lee concluded that, “For just this once, I would do the type of story I myself would enjoy reading And the characters would be the kind of characters I could personally relate to: they’d be flesh and blood, they’d have their faults and foibles, they’d be fallible and feisty, and — most important of all — inside their colorful, costumed booties they’d still have feet of clay.
Lee provided one of his earliest recorded comments on the creation of the Fantastic Four for a fanzine in , during which time Jack Kirby was also working at Marvel Kirby himself is interviewed separately in the same publication.
When asked who conceived the team, him or Kirby, Lee responded “Both — ’twas mainly my idea, but Jack created characters visually”. I wrote a detailed first synopsis for Jack to follow and the rest is history.
This approach to creating comics, which became known as the ” Marvel Method “, worked so well that Lee and Kirby used it from then on, and the Marvel Method became standard for the company within a year. Kirby recalled events somewhat differently. In a Fanzine interview he confirmed Lee’s involvement in the creation of the Fantastic Four but took credit for the main characters and ideas, stating “It was my idea. It was my idea to do it the way it was; my idea to develop it the way it was.
I’m not saying Stan had nothing to do with it. Of course he did. We talked things out. He regularly pointed to a team he created for rival publisher DC Comics in the s, the Challengers of the Unknown. I always give them a skintight uniform with a belt And of course, the Thing’s skin is a kind of decoration, breaking up the monotony of the blue uniform. Given the conflicting statements, outside commentators have found it hard to ascertain who created the Fantastic Four.
A typed synopsis by Lee for the introductory segment of the first Fantastic Four issue exists and outlines the characters and their origins, with various minor differences to the published version. However Earl Wells, writing in The Comics Journal , points out that its existence does not assert its place in the creation: “[W]e have no way of knowing of whether Lee wrote the synopsis after a discussion with Kirby in which Kirby supplied most of the ideas”. Comics historian R.
Harvey believes the Fantastic Four was a continuation of the work Kirby previously did, and so “more likely Kirby’s creations than Lee’s”. No further division of credit seemed appropriate. The release of The Fantastic Four 1 Nov. Lee had felt ready to leave the comics field at the time, but the positive response to Fantastic Four persuaded him to stay on. Issue 4 May reintroduced Namor the Sub-Mariner ,  an aquatic antihero who was a star character of Marvel’s earliest iteration, Timely Comics , during the late s and s period that historians and fans call the Golden Age of Comics.
Issue 5 July introduced the team’s most frequent nemesis, Doctor Doom. With issue 16 July , the cover title dropped its The and became simply Fantastic Four.
While the early stories were complete narratives, the frequent appearances of these two antagonists, Doom and Namor, in subsequent issues indicated the creation of a long narrative by Lee and Kirby that extended over months. According to comics historian Les Daniels , “only narratives that ran to several issues would be able to contain their increasingly complex ideas”. The story frequently cited as Lee and Kirby’s finest achievement   is the three-part ” Galactus Trilogy ” that began in Fantastic Four 48 March , chronicling the arrival of Galactus , a cosmic giant who wanted to devour the planet, and his herald, the Silver Surfer.
Editor Robert Greenberger wrote in his introduction to the story that, “As the fourth year of the Fantastic Four came to a close, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby seemed to be only warming up. In retrospect, it was perhaps the most fertile period of any monthly title during the Marvel Age.
The Sub-Mariner was crowned king of Atlantis in the first annual Marvel filed for a trademark for “Fantastic Four” in and the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the registration in Kirby left Marvel in mid,  having drawn the first issues plus an unfinished issue, partially published in Fantastic Four , with alterations, and later completed and published as Fantastic Four: The Lost Adventure April , Fantastic Four continued with Lee, Roy Thomas ,  Gerry Conway and Marv Wolfman as its consecutive regular writers, working with artists such as John Romita Sr.
Jim Steranko also contributed some covers during this time. With issue July , the aptly titled “Back to the Basics”,  Byrne began his run as writer, penciller and inker, the last under the pseudonym Bjorn Heyn for this issue only. Byrne revitalized the slumping title with his run. Various editors were assigned to the comic; eventually Bob Budiansky became the regular editor.
Byrne told Jim Shooter that he could not work with Budiansky, although they ultimately continued to work together.
In , Byrne said “that’s my paranoia. I look back and I think that was Shooter trying to force me off the book”. Byrne left following issue Aug. During this period, fans came to recognize that she was quite powerful, whereas previously, she had been primarily seen as a superpowered mother and wife in the tradition of television moms like those played by Donna Reed and Florence Henderson.
Byrne staked new directions in the characters’ personal lives, having the married Sue Storm and Reed Richards suffer a miscarriage and the Thing quitting the Fantastic Four, with She-Hulk being recruited as his long-term replacement.
It is an absolutely vital dynamic between the characters. Steve Englehart took over as writer for issues — except The title had been struggling, so Englehart decided to make radical changes. He felt the title had become stale with the normal makeup of Reed, Sue, Ben, and Johnny, so in issue Reed and Sue retired and were replaced with the Thing’s new girlfriend, Sharon Ventura , and Johnny Storm’s former love, Crystal.
The changes increased readership through issue At this point, Marvel made decisions about another Englehart comic, West Coast Avengers , that he disagreed with, and in protest he changed his byline to S. Englehart S.
In issue , Englehart was told to bring Reed and Sue back and undo the other changes he had made. This caused Englehart to take his name entirely off the book. He used the pseudonym John Harkness, which he had created years before for work he didn’t want to be associated with.
According to Englehart, the run from through his last issue, , was “one of the most painful stretches of [his] career. With brief inking exceptions, two fill-in issues, and a three-issue stint drawn by Arthur Adams ,   Simonson remained in all three positions through July Simonson, who had been writing the team comic The Avengers , had gotten approval for Reed and Sue to join that team after Engelhart had written them out of Fantastic Four.
Yet by The Avengers , where they were scheduled to join the team, Simonson was told the characters were returning to Fantastic Four. This led to Simonson quitting The Avengers after that issue. Shortly afterward, he was offered the job of writing Fantastic Four. Having already prepared a number of stories involving the Avengers with Reed and Sue in the lineup, he then rewrote these for Fantastic Four.
Simonson later recalled that working on Fantastic Four allowed him the latitude to use original Avengers members Thor and Iron Man , which he had been precluded from using in The Avengers. After another fill-in, the regular team of writer and Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco , penciller Paul Ryan and inker Dan Bulanadi took over, with Ryan self-inking beginning with Jan. That team, with the very occasional different inker, continued for years through July DeFalco nullified the Storm-Masters marriage by retconning that the alien Skrull Empire had kidnapped the real Masters and replaced her with a spy named Lyja.
Ventura departed after being further mutated by Doctor Doom. Although some fans were not pleased with DeFalco’s run on Fantastic Four , calling him “The Great Satan”, the title’s sales rose steadily over the period. Other key developments included Franklin Richards being sent into the future and returning as a teenager; the return of Reed’s time-traveling father, Nathaniel, who is revealed to be the father of time-travelling villain Kang the Conqueror and Reed’s apparent death at the hands of a seemingly mortally wounded Doctor Doom.
The ongoing series was canceled with issue Sept. The yearlong volume retold the team’s first adventures in a more contemporary style,  and set in a parallel universe. Following the end of that experiment, Fantastic Four was relaunched with vol. Initially by the team of writer Scott Lobdell and penciller Alan Davis ,  it went after three issues to writer Chris Claremont co-writing with Lobdell for 4—5 and penciller Salvador Larroca ; this team enjoyed a long run through issue 32 Aug.
At the time, the Marvel Comics series begun in the s, such as Thor and The Amazing Spider-Man , were given such dual numbering on the front cover, with the present-day volume’s numbering alongside the numbering from the original series. Writer J. As a result of the events of the ” Civil War ” company-crossover storyline, the Black Panther and Storm temporarily replaced Reed and Susan Richards on the team. During that period, the Fantastic Four also appeared in Black Panther ,   written by Reginald Hudlin and pencilled primarily by Francis Portela.
Beginning with issue April , writer Mark Millar and penciller Bryan Hitch began what Marvel announced as a sixteen-issue run. In the storyline “Three”, which concluded in Fantastic Four cover date March , published January 26, , the Human Torch appears to die stopping a horde of monsters from the other-dimensional Negative Zone. The series ended with the following issue, , and relaunched in March as simply FF. In November , to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Fantastic Four and of Marvel Comics, the company published the page Fantastic Four cover-dated Jan.
It revealed the fate of the character of Johnny Storm after issue , showing that while he did in fact die, he was resurrected to fight as a gladiator for the entertainment of Annihilus. Storm later formed a resistance force called Light Brigade and defeated Annihilus. Although it was launched as a continuation of the Fantastic Four title, FF continues publication as a separate series.
Starting with issue 12, the title focuses upon the youthful members of the Future Foundation, including Franklin and Valeria Richards. In the graphic novel Fantastic Four: Season One , the Fantastic Four is given an updated origin story set in the present day instead of the s. As part of Marvel NOW! Fantastic Four ended with , ending Jonathan Hickman’s long run on FF titles, and the title was relaunched in November with the creative team of writer Matt Fraction and artist Mark Bagley.
Robinson later confirmed that Fantastic Four would be cancelled in with issue , saying that “The book is reverting to its original numbers, and the book is going away for a while.